Janis A. Bulgren, Ph.D.

Research Centers - Center for Research on Learning
Research Professor
Primary office:
Joseph R. Pearson Hall
University of Kansas
1122 W. Campus Rd.
Lawrence, Kansas 66045


Janis Bulgren, Ph.D. is a Research Professor at the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. Her research addresses ways that teachers can plan for and provide instruction so that all students can understand critical content information, engage in reasoning, and generalize learning and reasoning. Students include those with learning disabilities and at-risk for school failure or low achievement as well as those who are average-achieving and high achieving.   

The focus of her research is on both acquisition of critical content-area knowledge and cognitive approaches to higher-order thinking and reasoning. She has developed instructional materials and procedures for teachers to use to help students with comprehend concepts, make comparisons, answer critical questions, explain cause-and-effect relationships, analyze and evaluate arguments, and make decisions.

​Dr. Bulgren’s recent research on analysis and evaluation of scientific and socio-scientific arguments has been extended to the development of an educational game to support student learning and engagement in argumentation. She is currently collaborating on an Innovation in Instruction grant with SRI and CAST to develop integrated sets of instructional procedures for units in science and social studies, and to support that instruction with technology. She has served as PI or co-PI on grants from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Education. Dr. Bulgren has collaborated with many researchers at the KUCRL as well as specialists in the KU School of Education and other research and development entities.            

Her work has been disseminated in peer-reviewed scholarly publications and studies, such as the Journal of Educational Psychology, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, Focus on Exceptional Children, Learning Disability Quarterly, Teaching Exceptional Children, Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Journal of Learning and Individual Differences, Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. Educational Media International, Electronic Journal of Science Education, Journal of Science Education and Technology, The Arithmetic Teacher, Education and Treatment of Children, Annual Editions of Educating Exceptional Children, and IACD Quarterly

Education

Academic Degrees

1987   Ph.D., University of Kansas, School of Education, Department of Special Education

1965   M.A., University of Iowa, Iowa City, English

1963   B.A., University of Iowa, Iowa City, English and Secondary Education (with highest distinction, with honors in English)

Selected Publications

Articles

Hock, M.F., Bulgren, J.A. & Brasseur-Hock, I. (2017) The Strategic Instruction Model: The less addressed aspects of effective instruction for high school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice doi 10.1111/ldrp.12139

Rowland, A., Craig Hare, J., Ellis, J., Ault, M., and Bulgren, J. (in press). Social Media: How the next generation can practice argumentation. Educational Media International. doi:     10.1080/09523987.2017.1362818 

Ault, M., Craig-Hare, J., Frey, B., Ellis, J. D., & Bulgren, J. (2015). The effectiveness of Reason Racer, a game designed to engage middle school students in Scientific Argumentation. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47 (1), 21–40. doi:10.1080/15391523.2015.967542

Frey, B. B., Ellis, J. D., Bulgren, J. A., Craig-Hare, J., & Ault, M. (2015). Development of a test of scientific argumentation. Electronic Journal of Science Education. 19(4)

Bulgren, J., & Ellis, J. (2015). The Argumentation and Evaluation Guide: Encouraging NGSS-based critical thinking. Science Scope, 38 (7), 78–85.

Bulgren, J. A., Ellis, J. D., & Marquis, J. G. (2014). The use and effectiveness of an Argumentation and Evaluation Intervention in science classes. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23 (1), 82–97.

Bulgren, J.A., Marquis, J.G., Deshler, D.D., Lenz, B.K., & Schumaker, J.B. (2013). The use and effectiveness of a question exploration routine in secondary-level English language arts classrooms. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, 28(4), 156-169.

Bulgren, J.A., Graner, P.S., & Deshler, D.D. (2013). Literacy challenges and opportunities for students with learning disabilities in social studies and history. Learning Disabilities & Research, 28(1), 17-27.

Bulgren, J.A., Marquis, J.G., Lenz, B.K., Deshler, D.D., & Schumaker, J.B. (2011). The effectiveness of a question exploration routine for enhancing the content learning of students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 578-593.

Bulgren, J.A., Marquis, J.G., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2009). Effectiveness of question exploration to enhance students' written expression of content knowledge and comprehension. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25(4), 271-289.

Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D D., & Lenz, B.K. (2007). Engaging adolescents with LD in higher order thinking about history concepts using integrated content enhancement routines. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 121-133.

Lenz, B.K., Adams, G.L., Bulgren, J.A., Pouliot, N., & Laraux, M. (2007). Effects of curriculum maps and guiding questions on the test performance of adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(4), 235-244.

Bulgren, J.A. (2006). Integrated content enhancement routines: Responding to the needs of adolescents with disabilities in rigorous inclusive secondary content classes. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(6), 54-58.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Marquis, J.G., Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., Davis, B., & Grossen, B. (2006). The instructional context of inclusive secondary general education classes: Teachers' instructional roles and practices, curricular demands, and research-based practices and standards. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 4(1), 39-65.

Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., Woodruff, S.K., Hock, M.F., Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (2006) Reading strategy interventions: Can literacy outcomes be enhanced for at-risk adolescents? Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(3), 64-68.

Deshler, D.D., Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., Davis, B., Grossen, B., & Marquis, J. (2004). Adolescents with disabilities in high school setting: Student characteristics and setting dynamics. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 2(2), 30-48.

Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., Bulgren, J.A., Davis, B., Lenz, B.K., & Grossen, B. (2002). Access of adolescents with disabilities to general education curriculum: Myth or reality? Focus on Exceptional Children, 35(3), 1-16.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., & Marquis, J. (2002). The use and effectiveness of a comparison routine in diverse secondary content classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 356-371.

Grossen, B., Caros, J., Carnine, D., Davis, B., Deshler, D., Schumaker, J., Bulgren, J., & Marquis, J. (2002). Big ideas (plus a little effort) produce big results. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(4), 70-74.

Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Jantzen, J.E., Adams, G.,… & Marquis, J. (2001). Making learning easier: Connecting new knowledge to things students already know. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 82-85.

Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., Hock, M.F., Knight, J., & Ehren, B.J. (2001). Ensuring content-area learning by secondary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(2), 96-108.

Boudah, D.J., Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2000). Don’t water down: Enhance content learning through the unit organizer routine. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(3), 48-57.

Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., & Lenz, B.K. (2000). The use and effectiveness of analogical instruction in diverse secondary content classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 426-441.

Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D.D., & Schumaker, J.B. (1997). Use of a recall enhancement routine and strategies in inclusive secondary classes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12(4), 198-208.

Bulgren, J.A., & Scanlon, D. (1997). Instructional routines and learning strategies that promote understanding of content area concepts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 41(4), 292-302.

Deshler, D.D., & Bulgren, J.A (1997). Redefining instructional directions for gifted students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities, 8(3), 121-132.

Bulgren, J.A., Hock, M., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1995). The effects of instruction in a paired associates strategy on the information mastery performance of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10(1), 22-37.

Shaw, J.M., Thomas, C., Hoffman, A., & Bulgren, J.A. (1995). Using concept diagrams to promote understanding of geometry concepts. The Arithmetic Teacher, 2(3), 184-189.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1994). The effects of a recall enhancement routine on the test performance of secondary students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 9(1), 2-11.

Crank, J. & Bulgren, J.A. (1993). Visual depictions as information organizers for enhancing achievement of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8(3), 140-147.

Greenwood, C.R., Delquadri, J., & Bulgren, J. (1993). Current challenges to behavioral technology in the reform of schooling: Large-scale, high-quality implementation and sustained use of effective educational practices. Education and Treatment of Children, 16(4) 401-440.

Bulgren, J.A., & Carta, J.J. (1992). Examining the instructional contexts of students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(3), 182-191. Reprinted with permission in Annual Editions: Educating Exceptional Children (1993). Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., & Kline, F.M. (1991). An instructional model for use by counselors: Promoting independence for post-secondary students with learning disabilities. IACD Quarterly, 123, 33-49.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1988). Effectiveness of a concept teaching routine in enhancing the performance of LD students in secondary-level mainstream classes. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 11(1), 3-17.

Bulgren, J.A. (1987). The development and validation of instructional procedures to teach concepts in secondary mainstream classes which contain students with learning disabilities. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Bulgren, J.A., & Knackendoffel, A. (1985). Ecological Assessment: An Overview. The Pointer, 30(2), 23-30. Reprinted with permission in Manitoba Association of Resource Teachers, 12(4), The Manitoba Teachers Society, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Books and Book Chapters

Bulgren, J.A., & Ellis, J.D. (2015). The Scientific argumentation routine (2015). The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning:  1122 West Campus Road, Room 517, Lawrence, KS 566045-3101.

 Ault, M., Craig-Hare, J., Ellis, J. D., Bulgren, J., Kretschmer, I., & Frey, B. B. (2016). Using Reason Racer to Support Scientific Argumentation in Middle School Science Instruction. In M. Urban & D. Falvo (Eds.), Improving K­12 STEM Education Outcomes through Technological Integration (pp. 399-­431). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference (IGI Global).

Bulgren, J., & Ellis, J. D. (2012). Argumentation and evaluation intervention in science classes: Teaching and learning with Toulmin. In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Perspectives on Scientific Argumentation: Theory, practice and research (pp. 135­154). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Bulgren, J. (2013). Teaching cause and effect (ibook) (2014). Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. Available on itunes.

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J. (2012). Improving academic outcomes in content areas. In B.G. Cook & M. Tankersley (Eds.), Research-based practices in special education (pp. 98-115). New York, NY: Pearson.

Bulgren, J.A., & Schumaker, J.B. (2005). Teaching practices that optimize curriculum access. In. D.D. Deshler & J.B. Schumaker (Eds.), Teaching adolescents with disabilities: Accessing the general education curriculum (pp. 79-120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., Bulgren, J.A., Davis, B., Lenz, B.K., & Grossen, B. (2005). Access of adolescents with disabilities to general education curriculum: Myth or reality? In T.M. Skrtic, K.R. Harris, & J.G. Shriner (Eds.) Special education policy and practice: Acountability, instruction, and social challenges (pp. 129-155). Denver, CO: Love Publishing. (Reprinted from Focus on Exceptional Children, 35(3), 1-16, 2002).

Bulgren, J. (2004). Effective content-area instruction for all students. In T.E. Scruggs & M.A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities: Research in secondary schools (Vol. 17, pp. 147-174). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Ltd.

Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J. Kissam, B., & Taymans, J. (2004). Smarter planning for academic diversity. In B.K. Lenz, & D.D. Deshler, with B. Kissam (Eds.), Teaching content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools (pp.47-77). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Ryan, A. (2001). Focus on student skills In A. K. Ryan (Ed.), Strengthening the safety net: How schools can help youth with emotional and behavioral needs complete their high school education and prepare for life after school (pp. 6-7). Burlington: University of Vermont School Research Office.

Bulgren, J.A. (1999). Concept organizers. In B.K. Lenz & J.B. Schumaker, (Eds.), Adapting materials for middle school students with disabilities. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (1996). Strategic instruction in the content areas. In D.D. Deshler, E.S. Ellis, & B.K. Lenz (Eds.). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods (2nd ed., pp. 409-473). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J.A. (1995). Promoting learning in the content area classes. In P.T. Cegelka & W.H. Berdine (Eds.), Effective instruction for students with learning disabilities (pp. 385-417). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., & Hudson, P. (1990). Content enhancement: A model for promoting the acquisition of content learning by individuals with learning disabilities. In T. Scruggs & B.L.Y. Wong (Eds.), Intervention research in learning disabilities (pp 122-165). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Deshler, D.D., Putnam, M.L., & Bulgren, J.A. (1985). Academic accommodations for adolescents with behavior and learning problems. In S. Braaten, R.B. Rutherford, Jr., & W.E. Evans (Eds.), Programming for adolescents with behavioral disorders (pp. 20-30). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

Instructional Materials

Rowland, A., Ellis, J., Ball, L., Mohn, J., Schwarting, J., Ault, M., Bradley, B., Bulgren, J., & Craig-Hare, J. (in-progress). Understanding Genetrics through Argumentation curriculum unit. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. Unit development part of three-year grant funded by the National Science Foundation, DRL - Discovery Research K-12, (NSF Award ID# - 1316799).

Frey, B.B., Ellis, J.D. & Bulgren, J.A. (2015). Test of Scientific Argumentation [Measurement instrument]

Craig-Hare, J., Rowland, A., Ellis, J., Bulgren, J., Ault, M., & Bradley, B. (2016). Argumentation essay scoring rubric. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2004). The professional development program for the concept comparison routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2004). The professional development program for the question exploration routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2004). The professional development program for the concept mastery routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2004). The professional development program for the concept anchoring routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2002). The question exploration routine: Trainer's guide. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2001). The question exploration routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A. (1998). Practicing the storage strategies: LINCS, FIRST, and PAIRS. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., & Bulgren, J.A. (1998). The content enhancement series: The course organizer routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Schumaker, J.B., Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D.D., & Lenz, B.K. (1998). The content enhancement series: The recall enhancement routine. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A. (1996). Concept comparison trainer's guide. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1996). Learning strategies curriculum: The paired associates strategy. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1995). Concept comparison routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Publications, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1994). The content enhancement series: The concept anchoring routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D.D., & Schumaker, J.B. (1993). The content enhancement series: The concept mastery routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises.

Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., & Boudah, D.A. (1994). The content enhancement series: The unit organizer routine. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises.

Bulgren, J.A. (1993). Concept mastery trainer's guide. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A. (1993). Concept anchoring trainer's guide. Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A. (1992). Planning for concept instruction. Strategram, 4(4). Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Bulgren, J.A. (1992). Concept teaching routine. Strategram, 4(4). Lawrence: University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Selected Presentations

Bulgren, J.A. (July, 2017).  Using Content Enhancement Graphics as Essay Writing Supports. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. & Hock, M. (July, 2017). Information gathering session on adaptations to Content Enhancement graphics and Reading Programs. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

 Bulgren, J.A., Schiller, E., Blackorby, J. & Spriggs, C. (July, 2017). Iterative development research insights from an Investing in Innovation Grant.  Presentation at the International SIM Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (July, 2016). The Scientific Argumentation Routine. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Rowland, A., Ellis, J., Craig-Hare, J., Ault, M., Bradley, B., Bulgren, J. (2015).  Social Media for Learning: Platform Preferences, Digital Citizenship and Authenticity.  Paper presentation given at the annual meeting of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).  Philadelphia, PA.

Ellis, J., Rowland, A., Ault, M., Bulgren, J.; Bradley, B., Craig­Hare, J. (January, 2015). Using social media to enhance the practice of scientific argumentation. Presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Science Teacher Education. Portland, OR.

Rowland, A., Ellis, J., Craig­Hare, J., Ault, M., Bradley, B., Bulgren, J. (August, 2014). Enhance Teaching and Learning with Social Media: Supporting Teacher Learning and Student Scientific Argumentation. Poster presented at the 2014 DR K­12 PI Meeting for the National Science Foundation: Washington, DC.

Rowland, A., Ellis, J., Craig-Hare, J., Ault, M., Bradley, B., Bulgren, J. (2015).  Social Media for Learning: Platform Preferences, Digital Citizenship and Authenticity.  Paper presentation given at the annual meeting of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).  Philadelphia, PA.

Bulgren, J. (2015). Scientific Argumentation. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. Next Generation Science Standards and Content Enhancements (2015). Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. (2015). Scientific Argumentation.  SIM Southwest Update. SIM X SOUTHWEST Update. Virtual Presentation.

Bulgren, J. (2015).Teaching Cause and Effect. SIM Southwest Update. SIM X SOUTHWEST Update. Virtual Presentation

Bulgren, J. (2015). Scientific Argumentation SIM® West Update

Bulgren, J. March 10, 2025 - SIM® SOUTHEAST UPDATE Virtual Presentation - Scientific Argumentation

Bulgren, J. June 25, 2015 - Scientific Argumentation SIM® Maryland Update . Virtual Presentation

Bulgren, J. (2014, October). Scientific Argumentation. Workshop

Bulgren, J. (2014). Teaching cause and effect. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. (2014). Content enhancement devices as essay-writing supports.  Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., Lenz, B.K., & Lenz, P. (2014). Beyond co-construction: using collaborative discourse for building understanding and collective intelligence. Presentation at the International SIM Conference. Lawrence, KS.

Ellis, J., Craig-Hare, J., Ault, M., Bulgren, J., & Frey, B. (January 2014). Reason racer: An on-line game to support learning of scientific argumentation. Research paper presented at ASTE Annual International Meeting: San Antonio, TX.

Ault, M., Craig-Hare, J., Ellis, J., Bulgren, J., Frey, B., & Adams, D. (2013). Reason racer: Engaging middle school students in scientific argumentation. Paper presented at the University of Kansas School of Education Research Conference, Lawrence.

Bulgren, J.A., (2013). The cause-and-effect routine. Strand presented at the annual Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., & Ricketts, E. (2013). Content enhancement and the common core. Strand presented at the annual Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Ellis, J., Craig-Hare, J., Ault, M., Bulgren, J., & Frey, B. (2013). The evidence game – introducing scientific argumentation in middle school science students. Paper presented at the NARST Annual International Confere4nce, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico.

Ault, M., Craig-Hare, J., Ellis, J., Bulgren, J., Frey, B., & Adams, D. (2013). Reason racer: Engaging middle school students in scientific argumentation. Paper presented at the University of Kansas School of Education Research Conference, Lawrence.

Bulgren, J.A., (2013). The cause-and-effect routine. Strand presented at the annual Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., & Ricketts, E. (2013). Content enhancement and the common core. Strand presented at the annual Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Ellis, J., Craig-Hare, J., Ault, M., Bulgren, J., & Frey, B. (2013). The evidence game – introducing scientific argumentation in middle school science students. Paper presented at the NARST Annual International Confere4nce, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico

Ault, M., Craig Hare, J., Bulgren, J., Ellis, J. (2012). Analysis of a game feature designed to heighten engagement and learning. Proceedings of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2012. Chesapeake, VA

Bulgren, J. (2012, July). Sharing the research: Cause and effect, decision making, and argumentation. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., Ault, M., Ellis, J., Frey, B. & Craig-Hare, J. (2012, June). The evidence games: Collaborative games engaging middle school students in the evaluation of scientific evidence.  Poster session presented at the 2012 DR K-12 PI Meeting for the National Science Foundation: Washington, DC.

Bulgren, J., & Ellis, J. (2012). The argumentation and evaluation intervention: Research findings from a grant from the National Science Foundation. Poster session presented at the annual Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., Ellis, J., Ault, M., Frey, B., & Craig Hare, J. (2012). The evidence game: Collaborative online video games engaging middle school students in the evaluation of scientific evidence. Poster session presented at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., & Lenz, B.K. (2012). Some routine rules for adapting, shrinking, and expanding content enhancement devices. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., & Lenz, B.K. (2012). The perfect match: Common core state standards and content enhancement routines. Strand presented at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Ellis, J.D., Bulgren, J., Ault, M., Frey, B., Hare, J.C. (2012, January). The Evidence game for supporting middle school teachers in introducing scientific argumentation to middle school science students. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Science Teacher Education, Clearwater Beach, FL.

Lenz, B.K. & Bulgren, J. (2012). Some routine rules for adapting, shrinking, and expanding content enhancement devices. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Ault, M., Craig Hare, J., Bulgren, J., Scherrer, D., Adams, D. (2011). Iterative development process for the evidence game: A scientific argumentation game for middle school students. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. SITE2012.

Bulgren, J. (2011, November). Argument Engagement. Science on Tap Cafe Series. Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (2011, July). Integrating the new “Three Rs” into your content enhancement routines: Reading, writing, and reasoning. Strand presented at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (2011, July). Close encounters with a SIM author: The question exploration routine. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. A. (2010, July). Set a course for success: Using content enhancement to support writing and reading comprehension. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. A. (2010, July). Energize your content enhancement neural pathways by looking beyond this galaxy. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., & Ellis, J.D. (2010, July). The argumentation and evaluation intervention: Research findings from grant from the National Science Foundation. Poster presented at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2010, July). Research Pecha-Kucha. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2010, July). Affinity group: A trip to the content enhancement holodeck: Planning professional development with sets of integrated enhancement devices. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., (2010, June 11). The use and effectiveness of an argumentation and evaluation intervention in science classes. Paper presented at the University of Kansas School of Education Strategies for Educational Improvement Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., Ellis, JD., & Marquis, J. (2010, January 16). The use and effectiveness of an argumentation and evaluation intervention in science classes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Science Teacher Education, Sacramento, CA.

Pollitt, D.T., Bulgren, J., & Lenz, K. (2009). Strategy role match survey: Teachers’ perceived roles in learning strategies. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Graner, P., Neduchal, J., Bulgren, J., Lenz, K., & Cheever, G. (2009). Making content Enhancement make a difference. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J., & Lenz, K. (2009). Taking stock of content enhancement. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Ellis, J.D., Bulgren, J., & Carlsen, K. (2009, April). Design study methodology to develop an intervention to enhance scientific argumentation skills of middle school students. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Garden Grove, CA.

Ellis, J.D., & Bulgren, J. (2009). Improving teaching of scientific argumentation skills. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Science Teacher Educators, Hartford, CT.

Bulgren, J.A. (2008, July). The development of the argumentation and evaluation routine in inclusive science classes. Poster presentation the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, J.A. (2008, July). Using question exploration as a scaffold for essay writing. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J.A. (2008, July). Making content enhancement make a difference: Let’s find all the pieces to the puzzle. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J.A. (2008, July). And now for the rest of the story: Strategic enhancers! Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, JA., & Lenz, BK. (2008, July). High-quality Content enhancement implementation. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, J.A. (2008, July). Embedded and emerging strategies at Level I of the content literacy continuum. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, J.A. (2008, June). Learning for all with content enhancement. Presentation at the University of Kansas School of Education/Kauffman Foundation, Strategies for Educational Improvement, NCLB 2008 and Beyond, Lawrence.

Ellis, J.D., & Bulgren, J.A. (2007, September). Materials to develop student knowledge and skills of scientific argumentation. Presentation at the National Science Foundation Project Directors/Principal Investigators Conference, Washington, DC.

Bulgren, J.A. (2007, July). Content enhancement: What is “good” implementation? Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2007, July). The link between content enhancement and literacy. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2007, July). Dish about data. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2007, April). The use and effectiveness of integrated content-enhancement routines in inclusive content-area classes. Presentation at the annual meeting of AERA, Chicago, IL.

Ellis, J.D., & Bulgren, J. (2006, September). Teaching students scientific argumentation skills. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Southwest Association for Science Teacher Education, Wichita, KS.

Bulgren, J., Hock, M., Schumaker, J. & Deshler, D. (2006, July). Xtreme reading: A new SIM reading course. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J. (2006, July). Planning and teaching integrated sets of content enhancement routines in content area courses using GIST. Presentation at the annual International SIM Trainers’ Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2005, July). Multiple development efforts in reading: The next generation of SIM reading strategies. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2005, July) Research on the development and use of content enhancements in secondary U.S. history classes: Comparison of different levels of professional material development support. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2005, April). Research on teaching tools for a variety of learning types. Presentation at the Universal Design and STEM Education Conference sponsored by the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Philadelphia, PA.

Bulgren, J.A. (2004, October). Helping students to answer difficult questions in secondary content classes. Paper presented at the Council for Learning Disabilities International Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Bulgren, J.A. (2004, July). Teaching routines for subject-area teachers of secondary inclusive classes. Paper presented at the OSEP Research & Leadership Project Directors’ Meeting, Washington, DC.

Bulgren, J.A., & Neduchal, J. (2004, July). Integrating CE routines. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., Hock, M.F., & Knight, J. (2004, July). CE and strategic tutoring in algebra class. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2004, April). Teaching learning strategies in the core curriculum as part of the adolescent content literacy continuum. Paper presented at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Ellis, J.D., & Bulgren, J.A. (2002, January). Teaching science to students with high incidence disabilities. Presentation at the AETS Annual International Conference, Charlotte, SC.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (2002, July). The question exploration routine. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., & McKnight, M. (2002, April). The power of questions and graphic organizers in inclusive high school language arts courses. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, New York City.

Bulgren, J.A. (2001-2002). Presentations to three school district science personnel for incorporation of routines into science.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (2001, July). Question exploration routine. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (2001, Fall). Science Education Classes. Ongoing instruction in University of Kansas science education courses, Lawrence.

Bulgren, J.A. (2001, Spring). Workshops for university faculty at the University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K, & Schumaker, J.B. (2001, April). Adapting curricular materials for inclusive secondary classrooms. Workshop presentation at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Kansas City, MO.

Schumaker, J.B., & Bulgren, J.A. (2001, April). Support schools model. Workshop presentation at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Kansas City, MO.

Lenz, B.K., Nelson, B., & Bulgren, J.A . (2000, July). Exploring the new content enhancement organizer interactive CD-ROM. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (1999, July). Practicing the storage strand strategies. Presentation at the annual international Strategic Instruction Model Conference, Lawrence, KS.

Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (1999, April). Integration of routines for planning and assessing through the use of content enhancement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Charlotte, NC.

Lenz, B. K., & Bulgren, J. A. (1998). Organization and integration of knowledge through the use of content enhancement routines. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, St. Paul, MN.

Bulgren, J. A., Scanlon, D., & Lenz, B. K. (1997, April). Ways of learning: Social and cognitive connections in secondary classrooms and beyond. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Salt Lake City, UT.

Bulgren, J.A., Scanlon, D., & Lenz, B.K. (1997, February). Elements of strategic planning, presenting, and empowering for content learning. Poster presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference.

Scanlon, D., & Bulgren, J.A. (1996, December). Approaches that make a difference when students depict compare/contrast relationships. Roundtable presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, Charleston, SC.

Scanlon, D., Bulgren, J., Lenz, B.K., Schumm, J., & Lovitt, T. (1996, April). Principles of effective inclusive education: Findings from classroom research. Panel discussion at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Orlando, FL.

Deshler, D.D., & Bulgren, J.A. (1996). Instructional directions for gifted students with learning disabilities. Presentation at the American Psychological Foundation Rosen Symposium.

Bulgren, J.A., Lenz, B.K., Scanlon, D., & Clark, C. (1995). Participatory research: Varied methodologies, issues, and findings in development and implementation of research partnerships involving teachers and researchers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Salt Lake City, UT.

Scanlon, D.J., Lenz, B.K., Bulgren, J.A., Bos, C.S., & Borkowski, J. (1994, April). Representing relationships: Four strategic approaches for secondary students with LD. Roundtable presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Bulgren, J.A., & Scanlon, D.J. (1993, November). The role of strategies and content enhancement procedures in mainstream settings. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Kansas Chapter of the Learning Disabilities Association of America, Topeka, KS.

Bulgren, J.A. (1993, April). The development and use of teaching routines designed to promote curriculum restructuring and student involvement to enhance student learning. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J.A. (1992, October). Research on how regular secondary teachers plan for inclusion and individualization. Presentation at the Council for Learning Disabilities, Kansas City, KS.

Scanlon, D.J., Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K. (September, 1992). Strategies intervention model in regular education. Cracker-barrel discussion at the National Strategies Intervention Model Trainers Meeting, Lawrence, KS.

Deshler, D.D., & Bulgren, J. (March, 1991). Redefining instructional directions for gifted students with learning disabilities. Presentation at the American Psychological Foundation Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children: At Risk, At Promise, Lawrence, KS.

Lenz, B.K., & Bulgren, J. A. (February, 1991). Planning and teaching routines for enhancing the delivery of content in the regular education classroom. Presentation at the Learning Disabilities Association of America International Conference, Chicago.

Bulgren, J.A . (1991). Memory patterns of people with learning disabilities. Presentation at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Atlanta, GA.

Brown, M.J., & Bulgren, J.A. (1989, April). Math strategies for adolescents with learning disabilities. Presentation at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Bos, C.S., Bulgren, J., & Graves, A.W. (1988, March). Facilitating concept development in content areas using interactive teaching strategies. Presentation at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Washington, DC.

Maheady, L., Greenwood, C.R., Carta, J., Arreaga-Mayer, C., & Bulgren, J.A. (1988, May). Selection and validation of classroom interventions using ecobehavioral analysis. Presentation at the annual Association for Behavioral Analysis Convention, Philadelphia, PA.

Bulgren, J. (1987, November). Learning to remember. Presentation at the Kansas Association for Children with Learning Disabilities State Convention.

Crank, J., Bulgren, J.A., Kea, C.D., Zimmerman, S.O., & Knackendoffel, E.A. (1987, April). Helpful insights to planning student research based on experience by recent doctoral candidates. Paper presented at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Chicago, IL.

Bulgren, J. (1986, October). The use of concept teaching diagrams and routines in content classes containing learning disabled students. Presentation at the eighth international Conference on Learning Disabilities, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, J. (March, 1986). Concept teaching routines for use in mainstreamed classrooms. Presentation at the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities International Conference, New York, NY.

Bulgren, J., Kea, C., Knackendoffel, A., & Zimmerman, S. (1986, March). Cooperative practices for regular and special education teachers to enhance effectiveness with mainstreamed students. Presentation at the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities International Conference, New York, NY;

Bulgren, J., Kea, C., Crank, J., & Putnam, L. (1985, July). Learning disabilities: How to provide services without an LD specialist. Presentation at the Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Post-Secondary Education (AHSSPPE) Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Kea, C., Bulgren, J., & Crank, J. (1985, April). Project ACSES: A post-secondary program for the learning disabled. Presentation at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Anaheim, CA.

Bulgren, J., Kea, C., Crank, J., & Putnam, L. (1984, October). Project ACSES (achieving success through educational strategies): A post-secondary learning disabilities program. Presentation at the international Conference on Learning Disabilities, Dallas, TX.

Kea, C., Crank, J., Bulgren, J., & Strong, P. (1984, July). Learning disabilities: New methods of assessment and direct student services. Presentation at the Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Post-Secondary Education (AHSSPPE) Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Bulgren, J., Kea, C., Crank, J., & Putnam, L. (1983, October). Project ACSES (achieving success through educational strategies): A post-secondary learning disabilities program. Presentation at the Kansas Association for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities State Conference, Wichita, KS.

Selected Grants

Bulgren, J.A. (2014-present). Subcontract as Principal Investigator, Redesigning Secondary Courses to Improve Academic Outcomes Related to Higher Standards for Students with Disabilities and Other Underperforming Students, subcontract with SRI International, funded by the U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation Fund (i3).

Ellis, J.D., Ault, M.M., Rowland. A.L., & Bulgren, J.A. (2013-2016). Enhancing argumentation with social media: Supporting teacher professional. National Science Foundation. ($429,784)

Sumner, J.A., & Bulgren, J.A. (2010-2015). Inclusive network for reading, math, and LRE in Kansas: A comprehensive technical assistance system. State of Kansas. ($1,576,635)

Bulgren, J.A., Ault, M., Ellis, J.D., & Frey, B. (2010-2014). The evidence games: Collaborative games engaging middle school students in the evaluation of scientific evidence. National Science Foundation. ($1,994,939)

Ellis, J. & Bulgren, J. (2006-2010). Professional development materials to develop student knowledge and skills of scientific argumentation. National Science Foundation. ($351,684).

Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., Hock, M.F., & Bulgren, J.B. (2005-2007). A national randomized study to validate an adolescent reading program for 9th graders. U.S. Department of Education Institute for Education Sciences and Vocational and Adult Education. ($1.4 million)

Hock, M F., Ault, M., James, J., & Bulgren, J.A. (2005-2008). MATRIX (Middle school achievement through technology-rich interventions. Subcontract with Wexford. ($1,350,000)

Bulgren, J.A. (2002-2007). Model demonstration: Strategic advantage: Ensuring the success of ninth graders with disabilities through intensive instruction. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. ($700,000)

Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., Bulgren, J.A., & Lenz, B.K.(1999-2006). Institute for academic access: A research institute to improve results for adolescents with disabilities in general education academic curricula. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. ($3,500,000)

Schumaker, J.B., & Bulgren, J.A. (1997-2001). Cognitive/behavioral apprenticeship: Validation of a coordinated instructional program to improve educational outcomes for adolescents with SED. U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs. ($617,117)

Mellard, D., White, W., Bulgren, J.A. & Horton, B.(1995-1998). Research and demonstration of a model for successfully accommodating adults with disabilities in adult education programs. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. ($525,000)

Bulgren, J.A., & Schumaker, J.B. (1995-1998). Performance enhancement routines for use in inclusive content classrooms. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. ($497,694)

Bulgren, J.A., & Schumaker, J.B. (1992-1993). Reasoning strategies and teaching routines for use in mainstream secondary classrooms. U.S. Department of Education. ($442,000)

Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., & Bulgren, J.A. (1998-1991). The development and validation of teaching routines for enhancing the performance of adolescents with learning disabilities in mainstream courses. U.S. Department of Education Special Education Programs. ($388,730)

Bulgren, J.A., McKnight, P., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (1987). Development and validation of learning and teaching strategies for the Kansas City INROADS Pre Collegiate program. Kansas City Foundation. ($122,000)

Deshler, D.D., & Bulgren, J.A. (1985-1986). Development and validation of concept teaching routines for enhancing the performance of learning disabled students in secondary mainstream courses. U.S. Department of Education Special Education Programs. ($12,482)

Academic Degrees

  • PhD, Special Education, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 1987
  • MA, English, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1965
  • BA, English and Secondary Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1963

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